The Dhamma: the second of the Three Refuges.

It refers to the Buddha’s teachings and the truth which those teachings lead us to discover.


The Four Noble Truths

1. The Noble Truth of Dukkha (suffering; unsatisfactoriness)

2. The Noble Truth of the Origin of Dukkha

3. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha

4. The Noble Truth of the Way leading to the Cessation of Dukkha – The Noble Eightfold Path


The Noble Eightfold Path

1. Right View  (Wisdom)

2. Right Intention  (Wisdom)

3. Right Speech (Virtue)

4. Right Action   (Virtue)

5. Right Livelihood   (Virtue)

6. Right Effort  (Meditation)

7. Right Mindfulness (Meditation)

8. Right Concentration (Meditation)



The Five Precepts

1. To avoid killing.

2. To avoid stealing.

3. To avoid adulterous behaviour

4. To avoid false speech

5. To avoid using intoxicants.


Right Speech

1. Truthful speech; not untruthful speech

2. Speech conducive to harmony; not slanderous speech

3. Kind speech; not harsh speech

4. Wise and timely speech; not idle chatter


Right livelihood

Avoiding a livelihood that does harm, e.g. dealing in meat, intoxicants, exploiting others, being a soldier, etc.


The Four Foundations of Mindfulness

1. Mindfulness of the Body: breath, posture, movements, elements, organs, decomposition.

2. Mindfulness of Feelings: pleasant, unpleasant, neutral.

3. Mindfulness of Mind: happy, depressed, excited, calm, distracted, concentrated, etc.

4. Mindfulness of Dhamma: the Buddha’s Teachings.


The Five Factors of Concentration

1. Applied Attention

2. Sustained Attention

3. Rapture

4. Happiness

5. One-pointedness of Mind


The Seven Factors of Enlightenment

1. Mindfulness

2. Investigation of phenomena

3. Energy

4. Rapture

5. Happiness

6. Tranquillity

7. Equanimity

The Divine Abodes

1. Metta: loving-kindness

2. Karuna: compassion

3. Mudita: sympathetic joy

4. Upekkha: equanimity


The Five Hindrances

1. Sensual Desire

2. Aversion

3. Sloth and Torpor

4. Restlessness and Worry

5. Doubt



The Three Characteristics of Conditioned Existence

1. Anicca: Impermanence, transiency

2. Dukkha: Unsatisfactoriness; suffering

3. Anatta: No-self; no-soul; no substance


The Five Khandhas

1. Form

2. Feeling

3. Perception

4. Mental Formations

5. Consciousness

The Four Primary Elements of Matter

1. Earth, which is characterised by solidity.

2. Water, which is characterised by fluidity and cohesion.

3. Fire, which is characterised by heat and the maturing of things.

4. Wind, which is characterised by motion.

Dependent Origination

1. With ignorance as condition kammic formations arise

2. With kammic formations as condition consciousness arises

3. With consciousness as condition mind and matter arise

4. With mind and matter as condition the six senses arise

5. With the six senses as condition contact arises

6. With contact as condition feeling arises

7. With feeling as condition craving arises

8. With craving as condition attachment arises

9. With attachment as condition becoming arises

10. With becoming as condition birth arises

11. With birth as condition aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair arise.

Thus arises this entire mass of suffering.


The Four Stages of Enlightenment

With each stage a number of the ten fetters are either weakened or destroyed. They are called fetters as they bind us to suffering and the cycle of birth and death.

1. Sotapanna: ‘one who has entered the stream’ and who is destined to attain enlightenment within seven lifetimes. He or she has uprooted the first three fetters: personality view, blind attachment to rules and practices, and doubt.

2. Sakadagami: the  ‘once-returner’ will be reborn no more than once before he or she attains enlightenment. Here the fourth and fifth fetters – sensuality and aversion – are substantially weakened.

3. Anagami: the ‘non-returner’. An anagami will be reborn in a ‘pure abode’ where they will attain full enlightenment. Sensuality and aversion are gone.

4. Arahant: the ‘worthy one’. An arahant has attained full enlightenment and is free from cyclic existence. He or she has removed the remaining five fetters: attachment to  material existence, attachment to fine-material existence, conceit, restlessness, and ignorance.




The Ten Perfections

1. Dana:  Generosity

2. Sila:  Virtue

3. Nekkhamma:  Renunciation

4. Panna:  Wisdom

5. Sacca:  Truthfulness

6. Viriya:  Energy

7. Adhitthana:  Determination

8. Khanti:  Patience

9. Metta:  Loving-kindness

10. Upekkha:  Equanimity


The Defilements

1. Greed (Root defilement)

2. Hatred (Root defilement)

3. Delusion (Root defilement)

4. Conceit

5. Wrong Views

6. Doubt

7. Sloth and Torpor

8. Restlessness

9. Lack of Moral Shame

10. Lack of Moral Dread

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